Transcription Conventions

( )                Expanded abbreviation


[ ]                Scribal erasure


[ / ]             Scribal erasure and correction (left of slash left

blank if erased letter is illegible, recorded if it is legible — e.g. [h/d]omini for scribal correction of h to d)


[[ ** ]]        Portion of text lost through damage and

illegible. Number of asterisks = approximate number of lost letters, where possible to estimate. Otherwise leave space between brackets blank.


/ \               Scribal insertion on the line


\ /               Scribal insertion between the lines


\\ //            Scribal insertion in margin

What is vHMML School?

School teaches about scripts and manuscripts, introducing learners to the sciences of paleography and codicology.  Choose a manuscript culture and follow the development of scripts through the centuries. Lessons include simple exercises to help you grasp important concepts. Lessons on Latin Scripts do not necessarily require a knowledge of Latin.

Transcribing Manuscripts offers a chance to practice reading the scripts covered in the Scripts and Manuscripts lessons. Each transcription exercise includes an answer key. The lessons in Transcribing Latin or Syriac Manuscripts assume a knowledge of Latin or Syriac respectively.