Remember in Visigothic script
The a and u in this script, as in many of the early medieval minuscules, are very easy to mistake for one another.
Remember that the letter g, which looks like a c with a very long tail. Like a c, it is open at the right. The form resembles the Uncial g in ductus.
T can join with preceding or following letters, and can take several different forms depending on the ligature. It is easy to mistake t for a or c or e, depending on context.
Scribes writing Visigothic use two forms of t-iligature: ti with an i that stands on the line represents "hard" t + i, whereas tj, with an elongated, j-like i is used where the t is assibilated – where it has the sound "ts-". Visigothic also uses a tall i (i-longa), which stands on the baseline and looks like it could be a lowercase l. I-longa is used at the beginnings of words (unless anther tall letter immediately follows it) and also between vowels where it represents consonantal i (the "y" sound), as in eIus (eius).
Remember in Beneventan script
The Beneventan script is characterized above all by the broken minim, in which the letter part that in other scripts is the smallest vertical stroke is made of two lozenge-like diagonal strokes written with a broad pen held at an angle.
Remember that Beneventan shares several features with Visigothic: a tall e that joins in ligature with following letters; the i-longa that resembles a lower-case l; an r with a very pointy top; and a t whose headstroke curves around to the left and resembles c.
In ligatures, the letters e, f, g, r, and t all have connecting strokes that reach out and join the following letter at minim-height.
Beneventan also uses a variety of ligatures with i in which the i is long and curvy like a j.
Exercise 1 - Visigothic
The British Library, Add. 11695, f. 194r.
Transcribe the first eleven lines of this manuscript.
Transcription Answer Key
1 Qui principes estis eius un hac ciuitate
2 singulorum officia singillatim
3 supra disseruit uel non audienda
4 hec in ea ultra disposuit;
5 Propter quam causam sic iudicetur
6 interserit in ea dixit sanguis pr(o)f(et)ar(um)
7 et s(an)c(t)or(um) inuentus est et omnium qui
8 interfecti sunt super terram;
9 EXPLICIT EXPLANATIO
10 INCIPIT /Y\STORIA
11 DE CIVITATE DEI
Exercise 2 - Beneventan
The British Library, Add. 30337, fol. 8r
Transcribe the first ten lines of this manuscript.
Transcription Answer Key
2 consecratus. ad noctis huius caliginem destruendam
3 indeficiens perseueret. et in odorem suauitatis
4 supernis luminaribus misceatur .,.
5 Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inueniat. ille inquam
6 lucifer qui nesciat occasum. ille qui regressus ab inferis
7 humano generi serenus illuxit .,.
8 Precamur ergo te domine ut nos famulos tuos omnem
9 clerum et deuotissimum populum.´ Una cum beatissimo
10 papa nostro. .Et antistite nostro. .prȩsentis uitȩ